Systems

From the Archives: Myths and Realities: Does the Weather Really Affect Arthritis?

March 3, 2011
From the Archives: Myths and Realities: Does the Weather Really Affect Arthritis?

Please enjoy this post from the Clinical Correlations archives first posted March 19, 2009

Aditya Mattoo MD

Faculty Peer Reviewed

For our first post, I wanted to address the age old belief that changes in the weather can affect arthritis pain. Since the time of Hippocrates, who wrote about the effects of hot and cold winds on people’s health, this topic has been debated. Even Osler suggested in 1892 that arthritis sufferers of wealth vacation in the south to avoid the cold damp weather of …

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Ramadan, Fasting, and Diabetes

February 25, 2011
Ramadan, Fasting, and Diabetes

By Sana Shah, Class of  2011

Faculty Peer Reviewed

The Islamic faith is characterized by five central pillars: the public declaration of one’s faith, five daily prayers, an annual tax to the poor, a pilgrimage to Mecca, and annual fasting. Muslims fast together during the month of Ramadan, which is the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar and will next occur from August 1st-30th, 2011. The month begins 10 to 11 days earlier each year in the solar calendar and may occur during different …

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The Resurgence of Pertussis: Is Lack of Adult Vaccination to Blame?

February 23, 2011
The Resurgence of Pertussis: Is Lack of Adult Vaccination to Blame?

By Ijeoma Ejigiri, Class of 2011

Faculty Peer Reviewed

Whooping cough. 100 day cough.  Pertussis.  These are the various names for the disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis.  This small gram-negative coccobacillus, transmitted via respiratory droplets, is responsible for causing coughing paroxysms followed by a long inspiratory gasp, during which the characteristic high-pitched “whoop” occurs.  These coughing paroxysms can last for ten weeks or longer, hence the moniker “100 day cough.”   The paroxysmal phase is usually preceded by a prodromal illness that is typically …

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A Vaccine Against Nicotine—New Hope or Mere Hype?

February 18, 2011
A Vaccine Against Nicotine—New Hope or Mere Hype?

By Carolan Hass, Class of 2012

Faculty Peer Reviewed

Cigarettes remain an anathema to many physicians.  Like so many unhealthy behaviors over which a clinician has little control, it can be frustrating to deal with a habit that can do so much harm to a patient, but which may be deeply entrenched in his daily life.  Although the percentage of current cigarette-smoking US adults has steadily decreased from 34.1% in 1978 to 19.8% in 2007 there remains vast room for improvement.  A fifty-percent reduction …

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Mystery Quiz- The Answer

February 11, 2011
Mystery Quiz- The Answer

Vivian Hayashi MD and Robert Smith MD, Mystery Quiz Section Editors

The answer to the mystery quiz is pulmonary artery aneurysm. The chest CT shows a very round lesion in the left lower lobe with possible surrounding ground glass opacity. This perfectly round shadow suggests a vascular origin (Image 4, arrow). The apparent vascularity is further suggested by the sequential axial cuts on the CT (Image 5) which show a tubular dilatation (Image 5b) that bifurcates distally (Image 5d & e). This impression was confirmed …

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Erythrocyte Index

February 10, 2011
Erythrocyte Index

By Michael Ford, MD

Faculty Peer Reviewed

“Blood Count”

2.65 x 10 # of erythrocytes in circulation, assuming Hematocrit 45% 120 Lifespan in days of an erythrocyte 2.5 million # of new erythrocytes produced each second to replace dying cells† 5.3 million # of erythrocytes per microliter of blood†,* 4,000 – 11,000 # leukocytes per microliter of blood 150,000 – 400,000 # platelets per microliter of blood 15.9 Grams of Hemoglobin A per deciliter of blood† 64,400 Molecular mass in grams of Hemoglobin A (protein…

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Mystery Quiz

February 4, 2011
Mystery Quiz

Vivian Hayashi MD and Robert Smith MD, Mystery Quiz Section Editors

The patient is an 84 year old man who presents with small amounts of hemoptysis for one week prior to admission. He is a life-long non-smoker who began having cough with sputum production for one year without fever, chills, nightsweats, orthopnea, weight loss, arthralgias or rash. The patient denied unusual occupational exposures, history of prior TB, travel, or owning pets. The past medical history was significant for coronary bypass surgery, hypertension, atrial fibrillation treated …

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Is Vasopressin Indicated in the Management of Cardiac Arrest?

February 2, 2011
Is Vasopressin Indicated in the Management of Cardiac Arrest?

By Brandon Oberweis, MD

Faculty Peer Reviewed

Case Report:

A 65-year-old male with a past medical history significant for NYHA class IV heart failure was found by his wife to be unresponsive.  Emergency Medical Services was subsequently called and upon arrival, initiated chest compressions and defibrillation for cardiac arrest secondary to ventricular fibrillation.  Intravenous access was obtained and despite two episodes of defibrillation, the patient remained in ventricular fibrillation.  The patient was given one dose of 40 U of vasopressin followed by 1 mg …

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