Diseases 2.0

Type 1 Diabetes: Research for Pancreatic Replacement, Transplantation and Regeneration

April 10, 2014
Type 1 Diabetes: Research for Pancreatic Replacement, Transplantation and Regeneration

By Karin Katz, MD and Loren Wissner Greene, MD, MA

Peer Reviewed

In 1964, Dr. Arnold Kadish used real-time glucose monitoring to adjust insulin infusion in a patient with diabetes and introduced the concept of a closed-loop system of insulin delivery. A decade later, several research groups developed closed-loop systems that linked glucose monitors with insulin pumps and determined how much insulin to deliver based on calculations from a set of algorithms . These big, bulky machines depended on intravenous routes of glucose sensing …

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West Nile Virus: Just How Bad Is It?

March 5, 2014
West Nile Virus: Just How Bad Is It?

By Julian Horwitz

Peer Reviewed

As of mid-August 2012, the CDC had reported 1118 cases of West Nile virus (WNV) infections and 41 related deaths, which, pro rata, made 2012 the most prolific year for WNV in the United States . Although West Nile’s classification as a public health crisis remains debatable, the lack of treatment and vaccination options make associated severe infections a real threat.

West Nile virus, a single-stranded RNA virus of the Flavivirus family, was first isolated in Uganda in 1937 . …

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Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Atherosclerosis

August 17, 2012
Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Atherosclerosis

By Michael Malone

Faculty Peer Reviewed

Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been popularized in recent years as beneficial nutrients with cardioprotective effects. Omega-3 PUFAs are so named because of a double bond between the 3rd and 4th carbon of the polycarbon chain. They are “poly-unsaturated” with hydrogen atoms, as their carbon chains contain multiple double bonds. Three omega-3 long chain PUFAs are typically discussed in the context of medical therapy, the first being alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). ALA is an essential precursor omega-3 …

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RTS,S/AS01: Is This The Beginning Of The End Of Malaria?

April 12, 2012
RTS,S/AS01: Is This The Beginning Of The End Of Malaria?

By Nicole Sunseri

Faculty Peer Reviewed

In Africa, there lurks a stealthy and powerful beast. Is it a lion, a black mamba, or a crocodile? No, it is the Anopheles mosquito. Although less than the size of a paperclip, these insects inflict an incapacitating blow, inoculating their larger human prey with Plasmodium spp., the parasites responsible for malaria. According to the World Health Organization, the worldwide incidence of malaria infection in 2009 was 225 million cases with a death toll of 781,000 Most of these …

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Obesity 2.0: More Than Just the Extra Weight

February 9, 2012
Obesity 2.0: More Than Just the Extra Weight

By Aviva Regev

Faculty Peer Reviewed

Introduction

Few people these days are unaware of the “obesity epidemic,” with its inception here in the United States and its steady, insidious spread around the globe. The numbers are truly staggering: in 2008, the World Health Organization estimated that 1.5 billion adults–over 20% of the earth’s population–were overweight, and 500 million of those were classified as obese, with a body mass index greater than 30. In the United States, over a third of the population is overweight, and …

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A New Era of Therapy for Hepatitis C

November 4, 2011
A New Era of Therapy for Hepatitis C

By Alexander Jow, MD

Faculty Peer Reviewed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health issue, representing the leading cause of chronic liver disease, death from liver disease, and a principal indication for liver transplantation in the US. It is estimated that 3-4 million people in the world are infected with HCV each year. Globally, 130-170 million people are chronically infected with HCV and more than 350,000 people die from HCV-related liver disease each year. Although the natural history of HCV infection …

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Stemming the Tide: The Promise and Pitfalls of HIV Prevention Research

September 28, 2011
Stemming the Tide: The Promise and Pitfalls of HIV Prevention Research

By Benjamin Bearnot

Faculty Peer Reviewed 

Since the discovery of zidovudine (AZT) in the mid-1980s, advances in antiretroviral (ARV) therapy for patients with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have, until recently, outpaced concomitant improvements in methods for HIV prevention. Over the past few years, HIV prevention research has been building an impressive head of steam. While a completely effective vaccine for HIV prevention has continued to prove elusive, results of a modestly successful (~30% protective) vaccine trial based in Thailand were announced in 2009, …

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Vegetative State 2.0

May 13, 2011
Vegetative State 2.0

By Ivan Saraiva, MD

Faculty Peer Reviewed

 “Mr. Dockery was a police officer in the town of Walden, northwest of Chattanooga, when he was shot in the forehead as he responded to a call on Sept. 17, 1988. He has been motionless and speechless in a nursing home most of the time since then but was recently moved to Columbia Parkridge Medical Center here because of a lung infection. Suddenly, on Monday, he spoke, amazing his family and physicians.” (NY Times, February 17, 1996)

 What …

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