Journal Club

Breaking News: The Jupiter Trial

November 12, 2008
Breaking News: The Jupiter Trial

Commentary by Ilana Bragin MD, PGY-3

This week online in the NEJM, the results of a trial known as Jupiter were presented in an article that will likely change the way we approach cardiovascular health protection. The Jupiter trial attempts to answer this perturbing question: “Why do half of all myocardial infarctions and strokes occur in apparently healthy men and women with levels of LDL that are below currently recommended thresholds of treatment?” The study addresses the biomarker C-reactive protein, an inflammatory marker that has long been…

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Perioperative Beta-blockade: Will POISE Change Management?

September 10, 2008
Perioperative Beta-blockade: Will POISE Change Management?

Commentary by Michael LoCurcio MD, Michael Janjigian MD and Michael C Brabeck MD, FACP, NYU Division of General Internal Medicine

Cardiovascular complications continue to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the perioperative period. Although progress has been made in terms of risk stratification, an effective invasive or pharmacologic intervention that decreases this risk remains elusive. Well designed studies have shown that prophylactic invasive measures are not effective in decreasing this risk, leaving clinicians uncertain as to the best way to maximize the…

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Not So Rosi…

May 24, 2007
Not So Rosi…

Commentary by Seagram Villagomez MD, Chief Resident

Since its approval in 1999, nearly 1 million Americans have used the thiazolidinedione (TZD) rosiglitazone (Avandia – GlaxoSmithKline) for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.  However, in a drug class which seems plagued by concerns, the safety profile associated with rosiglitazone has been brought to question. Previously, troglitazone (Rezulin) was pulled off the market secondary to hepatoxicity, while muraglitazar was not approved by the FDA given adverse cardiovascular events during early clinical trials.  In a…

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How Do You Estimate Stroke Risk After a Transient Ischemic Attack?

April 24, 2007
How Do You Estimate Stroke Risk After a Transient Ischemic Attack?

By: Alana Choy-Shan, MD PGY-3
Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) are known to be a harbinger of stroke, however it is difficult for physicians to estimate individual stroke risk. Previously, the two systems used to predict short-term risk of stroke after a TIA were the California and ABCD scores. Both scores are based on clinical factors with several key elements in common. However, neither scoring system was devised to predict stroke within 48 hours of TIA, a time period which may be most clinically relevant.…

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New Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism-Part 2

April 19, 2007
New Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism-Part 2

Commentary By: Margaret Horlick, MD, PGY-3

New guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) were recently jointly issued by the American Academy of Family Physicians and the American College of Physicians. The guidelines are based on a systematic review of the evidence and are published, along with the systematic reviews, in the 2/2007 and 3/2007 issues of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Part 1-Diagnosis

Part 2 Treatment

The treatment recommendations are summarized as follows:

Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), as opposed to unfractionated

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New Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism-Part 1

April 12, 2007
New Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism-Part 1

Commentary By: Margaret Horlick, MD, PGY-3

New guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) were recently jointly issued by the American Academy of Family Physicians and the American College of Physicians. The guidelines are based on a systematic review of the evidence and are published, along with the systematic reviews, in the 2/2007 and 3/2007 issues of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

According to the reviews, there are 600,000 cases of VTE in the US annually, and the…

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Does Screening for Lung Cancer Improve Mortality?

April 10, 2007
Does Screening for Lung Cancer Improve Mortality?

Commentary By: Anna Dvorak, MDPGY-3

Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer mortality in both men and women. Screening patients at risk for lung cancer might reduce mortality if it helps find cancers at an early stage while they are still resectable. Randomized studies done in the 1970s showed that screening for lung cancer with chest x-ray did not support this theory. Chest x-rays identified more small tumors, but resecting them did not improve mortality. The question of whether screening with chest CT…

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The COURAGE Trial: PCI is not superior to medical therapy in patients with stable coronary disease

March 27, 2007
The COURAGE Trial:  PCI is not superior to medical therapy in patients with stable coronary disease

Commentary by Cara Litvin, PGY-3

The results of one of the more remarkable studies from the meeting of the American College of Cardiology were presented on Monday, along with the simultaneous early publishing of the study online in the New England Journal of Medicine. As a result the study results captured a front page article in today’s New York Times.

The COURAGE (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation) trial was a randomized trial involving 2287 patients with stable but significant coronary artery disease…

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Does the Overuse of Macrolides Lead to Antibiotic Resistance?

March 12, 2007
Does the Overuse of Macrolides Lead to Antibiotic Resistance?

Commentary By: Danise Schiliro, PGY-3

Although intuitively we always worry about creating drug resistance when using antibiotics, there is a surprising lack of well done studies that show a clear causal effect of antibiotic use on the development of subsequent drug resistance. A recent study in Lancet may however lead us to re-evaluate our use of macrolides in everyday practice.

Azithromycin and clarithromycin are two of the most commonly used macrolides for treating respiratory infections. Azithromycin has a long half-life, making it convenient for once…

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Should patients with Anemia and a Normal Ferritin Undergo Colonoscopy?

February 16, 2007
Should patients with Anemia and a Normal Ferritin Undergo Colonoscopy?

Commentary By: Joshua Olstein PGY-3

Second only to lung cancer, colon cancer claimed an estimated 55,000 lives in the United States in 2006. In an effort to reduce colon cancer morbidity and mortality, multiple screening tests have been developed to detect early disease among asymptomatic individuals. The 2003 American Gastroenterology Associations guidelines for screening asymptomatic individuals recommended colonoscopy as a preferred method of screening.

Due to a higher risk of colonic neoplasm, patients with unexplained iron-deficiency anemia are not included in these…

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A drug for NASH that may work?

January 24, 2007
A drug for NASH that may work?

Commentary By: Sandra D'Angelo, PGY-3

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a disease in which patients have features of alcoholic hepatitis on liver biopsy without a prior history of significant alcohol consumption and negative hepatitis serologies. It is unclear how prevalent this disease is because most patients with liver function abnormalities do not undergo liver biopsy.  In those that have had a liver biopsy, the prevalence is estimated to be 7-9%.  It is most common in women between the ages of 40-60 and…

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Should we recommend mammography screening for women between the ages of 40-50?

December 22, 2006
Should we recommend mammography screening for women between the ages of 40-50?

In a recent article in the Lancet, this question was addressed by a group of investigators led by Sue Moss, Ph.D. from the University of Leeds.  Currently, the  National Cancer Institute, U.S. Preventative Health Services Task Force and the American Cancer Society all recommend screening at a younger age(those between 40-50).  The task force, however, does recommend educating your patients about the potential risks/benefits regarding mammography at a younger age.  Screening women older than 50 has been shown to reduce mortality from breast cancer by…

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