Pharmacology

Zolpidem and Uncontrollable Nocturnal Eating Binges

February 24, 2010
Zolpidem and Uncontrollable Nocturnal Eating Binges

John Cruz

Faculty peer reviewed

A number of studies have shown that zolpidem (Ambien), the most commonly prescribed sleep-inducing medication on the market, can produce uncontrollable nocturnal eating behavior among users.  Sleep related eating disorder (SRED) is characterized by partial arousals from sleep to ingest food, usually within the first three hours after sleep onset, occurring one to six times per night.1  Patients describe an “automatic” inclination to eat and an inability to return to sleep…

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Breaking News: FDA issues new warning for Exenatide (Byetta®)

November 5, 2009
Breaking News: FDA issues new warning for Exenatide (Byetta®)

Kanika Ballani, Pharm.D.
Diana Hubulasvili, Pharm.D.

 Developed by Amylin Pharmaceuticals, Exenatide (Byetta®) is an incretin mimetic that is used as an adjunctive therapy with metformin, a sulfonylurea or a thiazolidinedione to improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients. Mechanistically, Exenatide mimics the actions of endogenous incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), causing an increase in insulin secretion which slows gastric emptying and leads to a decrease in food intake. On November 3rd 2009, the FDA issued a safety warning on Exenatide associating…

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Clinical Questions: How do you dose argatroban?

April 16, 2009
Clinical Questions: How do you dose argatroban?

Frederick Gandolfo, MD

Case: An 85 year-old woman admitted to the hospital with pneumonia and after a prolonged hospital course developed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). She is currently being treated with argatroban and her platelet counts are recovering. You are the covering physician and are called by the lab for an INR of 12 on her routine labs. The patient shows no signs of bleeding and she is not on warfarin. The PTT at the time…

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Grand Rounds: “Activated Protein C, Translational Research models of Sepsis and Stroke”

January 28, 2009
Grand Rounds: “Activated Protein C, Translational Research models of Sepsis and Stroke”

Commentary by Adi Diab MD, PGY-3

This past week on January 21th, Medical Grand Rounds was given by guest speaker Dr. John Griffin who shared his knowledge of the role of Activate Protein C in both human and murine models of sepsis and stroke.

Activated protein C (APC) is a FDA approved drug that reduces mortality in adult severe sepsis patients, but also increases the risk of serious bleeding. APC exerts anticoagulant activity by proteolysis of factors Va/VIIIa. However, additional clinical trails using…

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Breaking News: Revenge of the Gila Monster?

August 20, 2008
Breaking News: Revenge of the Gila Monster?

Commentary by Rachana Jani MD, PGY-2

As recently reported in ShortCuts, Byetta recently made headlines after the suggestion of a mortality benefit for patients taking the drug in a small subset of the Accord study.  So is this the new golden drug for diabetics? Perhaps not. This week, the FDA updated a previous alert warning providers about the risks of pancreatitis in patients taking Byetta. Last October, the FDA first issued an alert after there had been 30 postmarketing reports of acute pancreatitis in patients who had recently been started on Byetta. Though…

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New National Network E-mails Drug Alerts Instantly to U.S. Doctors

July 31, 2008
New National Network E-mails Drug Alerts Instantly to U.S. Doctors

Commentary by Marilena S. Antonopoulos Pharm.D, Pharmacology Section Editor

Until recently, drugs safety alerts (aka “Dear Doctor letters”) were sent out to physicians through traditional U.S. mail, a slow and error-prone process. These alerts can be significantly delayed and may not even reach the intended recipient. In an effort to improve the speed and efficacy of the delivery of FDA mandated patient safety alerts to physicians and other healthcare providers, the Health Care Notification Network (HCNN) has announced the launching of its online service that…

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Breaking news: FDA issues new Boxed Warning for Fluoroquinolones

July 10, 2008
Breaking news: FDA issues new Boxed Warning for Fluoroquinolones

Commentary by Marilena S. Antonopoulos, PharmD, Pharmacology Editor

On July 8th, the FDA notified the manufacturers of fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drugs that a Boxed Warning in the product labeling and a Medication Guide for patients concerning the increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture is necessary. The FDA conducted a new analysis of the available literature and post-marketing adverse event reports which reconfirms that the use of fluoroquinolones is associated with an increased risk of tendon rupture.

The risk of developing fluoroquinolone-associated tendinitis and tendon rupture…

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The Skinny on Hoodia

May 16, 2008
The Skinny on Hoodia

Commentary by Melissa Freeman, PGY-2 

As summertime is just around the corner, many begin to evaluate whether their bodies are ready to expose what has been hidden under those bulky winter clothes. Between busy lives and an innate desire for quick results, people sometimes turn to over-the-counter diet pills for a slimmer physique. With recently banned products like Ephedra, consumers are looking for newer, more promising weight loss products. During a recent clinic visit, a patient asked me about my thoughts on diet pills…

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Class Act: The Polypill Panacea

May 1, 2008
Class Act: The Polypill Panacea

Commentary by David Hatcher, MSIII (reviewed by Neil Shapiro, MD Editor-In-Chief, Clinical Correlations)

C.M. is a 68 year-old retired Caucasian male with a past medical history significant for coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, HTN, and a 30 pack year history of smoking. His drug regimen consists of a beta-blocker, an ace inhibitor, a statin, and aspirin.

Patients like C.M. are now more common than ever before. He has already had one heart attack, and he has multiple risk factors for…

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Future Medicine: The Search for a New Anticoagulant

April 16, 2008
Future Medicine: The Search for a New Anticoagulant

Future Medicine is a new section of Clinical Correlations devoted to hot areas of research and development in various fields of medicine. In tihis series, we will highlight treatments in their infancy, from basic research opening up new targets for treatment, to following small molecules throughout their clinical investigation. We will also bring you the latest on technology and devices, as well as perspectives on drug discovery from a business point of view. Watch out – the future is just around the corner!

Commentary by Aaron Lord

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Class Act: Do Statins Always Have to Be Taken in the Evening?

January 10, 2008
Class Act: Do Statins Always Have to Be Taken in the Evening?

Class act is a feature of Clinical Correlations written by NYU 3rd and 4th year medical students. These posts focus on evidenced based answers to clinical questions related to patients seen by our students in the clinics or on the wards. Prior to publication, each commentary is thoroughly reviewed for content by a faculty member. Enjoy…

Commentary by David Leaf, MSIV

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are the most powerful drugs used for lowering LDL cholesterol, with median reductions in the range of 30 to 63…

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Clinical Question: Pharmacology

December 28, 2007
Clinical Question: Pharmacology

Is there evidence to support the use of Lantus® (human insulin analog glargine) administered Q12h in Type 1 Diabetes?

Commentary by Kathy Lee, Pharmacy Resident 

The goal of diabetes management is to reduce the risk of long-term complications by maintaining near-normal glycemic control, in addition to reducing other risk factors. Patients with type 1 diabetes have an absolute deficiency in insulin and require exogenous insulin replacement. Lantus®, human insulin analog glargine, is the only long-acting insulin that exhibits a “peakless” action profile with…

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