Allergy/Immunology

The Rising Tide of Food Allergy

October 20, 2016
The Rising Tide of Food Allergy

By Kristina Cieslak, MD

Peer Reviewed

Food allergies affect approximately 8% of children and 5% of adults, with a steadily increasing prevalence .  Risk factors for the development of food allergy are numerous and include genetics, sex, and ethnicity . Indeed, children with a parent or sibling with peanut allergy are seven times more likely to develop a peanut allergy of their own, and peanut allergy demonstrates a 64% concordance rate among monozygotic twins as compared to 7% among dizygotic twins . The …

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Barriers to Translating Evidence into Clinical Care: the Zoster Vaccine

December 13, 2013
Barriers to Translating Evidence into Clinical Care: the Zoster Vaccine

Zachary Elkin

Faculty Peer Reviewed

There are more than a million cases of herpes zoster (HZ) in the US annually . The incidence of HZ, or shingles, has been rising in the US since the 1990s . One third of all people in the US will get HZ, with the highest incidence in people aged 50 to 79 . As a result of the Shingles Prevention Study (SPS), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved the Zostavax …

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Can we teach the immune system to fight cancer?

November 1, 2013
Can we teach the immune system to fight cancer?

By Jenny Gartshteyn

Faculty Peer Reviewed

Since the start of vaccination – we’ve eradicated smallpox and polio, saved college kids from meningitis, averted flu epidemics, and decreased the incidence of HPV-related cervical cancer … but can we teach our immune systems to actively fight existing cancer?

Here’s the mechanism for an ideal anti-cancer vaccine:

With the growth and turnover of cancerous cells, cancer-specific tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) would be recognized and processed by professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells and macrophages – which would …

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Barriers to Translating Evidence into Clinical Care: the Zoster Vaccine

October 10, 2013
Barriers to Translating Evidence into Clinical Care: the Zoster Vaccine

By Zachary Elkin

Faculty Peer Reviewed

There are more than a million cases of herpes zoster (HZ) in the US annually . The incidence of HZ, or shingles, has been rising in the US since the 1990s . One third of all people in the US will get HZ, with the highest incidence in people aged 50 to 79 . As a result of the Shingles Prevention Study (SPS), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved the …

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Should Physicians Offer The HPV Vaccine To Men And Boys?

March 23, 2012
Should Physicians Offer The HPV Vaccine To Men And Boys?

By Kevin Burns

Faculty Peer Reviewed

On December 22, 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (Gardasil; Merck, Whitehouse Station, New Jersey) for prevention of anal cancer and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) for males and females 9 to 26 years old. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States and the high-risk subtypes 16 and 18 are linked to development of cervical, vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and oropharyngeal malignancies. The FDA-approved uses for …

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Does the BCG Vaccine Really Work?

March 14, 2012
Does the BCG Vaccine Really Work?

By Mitchell Kim

Faculty Peer Reviewed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an acid-fast bacillus, is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), an infection that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. A highly contagious infection, TB is spread by aerosolized pulmonary droplet nuclei containing the infective organism. Most infections manifest as pulmonary disease, but TB is also known to cause meningitis, vertebral osteomyelitis, and other systemic diseases through hematogenous dissemination. In 2009, there were an estimated 9.4 million incident and 14 million prevalent cases of TB worldwide, with a …

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Understanding the Zoster Vaccine

July 13, 2011
Understanding the Zoster Vaccine

By Michael Cohen

Faculty Peer Reviewed

The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is well known to the majority of the population. In children, it strikes as varicella (chickenpox), characterized by pruritic, vesicular lesions in different stages of development dispersed over the body. A self-resolving and generally limited disease, this form of VZV infection is considered to be a nuisance more than a debilitating affliction, but rarely can have severe sequelae. In adults and the elderly VZV more commonly takes the form of zoster (shingles). This disease results …

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The Resurgence of Pertussis: Is Lack of Adult Vaccination to Blame?

February 23, 2011
The Resurgence of Pertussis: Is Lack of Adult Vaccination to Blame?

By Ijeoma Ejigiri, Class of 2011

Faculty Peer Reviewed

Whooping cough. 100 day cough.  Pertussis.  These are the various names for the disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis.  This small gram-negative coccobacillus, transmitted via respiratory droplets, is responsible for causing coughing paroxysms followed by a long inspiratory gasp, during which the characteristic high-pitched “whoop” occurs.  These coughing paroxysms can last for ten weeks or longer, hence the moniker “100 day cough.”   The paroxysmal phase is usually preceded by a prodromal illness that is typically …

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